How to solve the problems of large historical arrears and insufficient capital investment in mine ecological restoration?
Mine ecological restoration is an important part of comprehensively promoting the construction of ecological civilization. In recent years, all regions have actively promoted mine ecological protection and restoration in accordance with the requirements of green development. But on the whole, China's mine ecological restoration still faces problems such as imperfect system, low level, and difficult to popularize new technologies. The impact of destructive development on mine geological environment is still serious. To implement the new development concept and speed up the construction of ecological civilization, we should put mine ecological restoration in a more prominent position, and comprehensively improve the level of mine ecological restoration and comprehensive management through scientific governance, market-oriented operation and social participation, in accordance with the requirements of "building a modern environmental governance system with the leadership of the Party committee, government leadership, enterprise main body, social organizations and the public participation".
Implement scientific governance model. Mine ecological restoration is a complex systematic project, which must be guided by the new development concept and take the road of scientific management. First, establish the concept of scientific restoration. First, the concept of repairing according to local conditions. Adhere to the principle of giving priority to ecology, and carry out restoration according to the mining policies according to the principles of "agriculture is suitable for agriculture, construction is suitable for construction, water is suitable for water, and water is suitable for retention". The second is the concept of natural restoration. Follow the laws of natural ecosystem, reshape the natural landform, reconstruct the soil and select plant species for the mine, so as to better realize the coordination, compatibility and self-regulation of mountains, forests, fields, lakes, grass and sand. The third is the concept of mining while repairing. Compared with the end treatment of traditional ecological restoration, it pays more attention to source control and process treatment, effectively improving the reclamation rate of mining land and the level of waste recycling. Secondly, establish a whole-process repair mechanism of "before, during and after". In the "prior" link, we will promote the formulation of relevant legislation and standards for mine ecological restoration. On the premise of conforming to the land space planning, we will comprehensively prepare the mine geological environment protection and governance plans at all levels, and comprehensively implement the three simultaneous systems of mineral resources development and utilization plan, mine geological environment protection and governance recovery plan, land reclamation plan and social publicity system. In the "process" link, the geological environment problems of "old and new" mines should be identified in a standardized manner, and the local governments at all levels should carry out the overall management of the mines left over by history, and urge the mining enterprises to effectively perform the main responsibility of ecological restoration of mines under construction and production, and gradually establish a national mine geological environment dynamic monitoring system. In the "post event" link, improve the assessment and evaluation system of mine ecological restoration effectiveness, and explore the establishment of enterprise ecological restoration integrity archives and credit accumulation system. Finally, strengthen the support of repair technology. Vigorously promote the research and development of key technologies for mine ecological restoration, such as green mining, scientific diagnosis of ecological damage, ecological restoration planning, landform remodeling and soil reconstruction, vegetation restoration and biodiversity construction, and accelerate the promotion and application of new technologies through special subsidies, tax relief and other ways.
Make use of market-oriented operation mode. In order to solve the problems of large historical arrears and insufficient capital investment in mine ecological restoration, we must be good at using market logic and policy incentives to gather all parties. First, establish a diversified investment mechanism. On the one hand, we should increase financial investment, strengthen the integrated use of policy and project funds, and provide necessary support for the ecological restoration of historic mines; On the other hand, we should give full play to the leading role of financial funds, and open up the channels of social capital participation through the establishment of financing platforms by the government, the purchase of services by the government, and the cooperation between the government and enterprises in accordance with the principle of "who governs, who benefits". The second is to establish the capitalization mechanism of stock resources. First of all, revitalize the mine's stock of construction land. The policy dividend of linking the increase and decrease of urban and rural construction land, the reclamation of abandoned industrial and mining land and the balance of occupation and compensation of cultivated land will be used as a whole, and the indicators of construction land vacated after mine reclamation will be allowed to be circulated and used within the province, so as to feed back the benefits of mine ecological restoration. Secondly, make rational use of abandoned mine soil and stone. According to the principle of "one mine and one policy", the utilization plan and ecological restoration plan of abandoned mine earth and rock materials can be prepared synchronously. After the review and approval of relevant competent departments, the new earth and rock materials generated due to slope cutting, load reduction, elimination of geological hazards and other hidden dangers and the earth and rock materials left in place can be used in the restoration project for free. In addition, if there is any surplus that can be sold externally, the people's government at the county level will be included in the public resources trading platform, and the sales proceeds will be used for the ecological restoration of the region, while ensuring the reasonable income of the social investment entities undertaking the restoration project. Third, establish a mechanism for industrial integration and development. According to the ecological sensitivity and spatial layout structure of the mining area, explore and implement the ecological restoration mode of "use and control" for the mines with comprehensive utilization and transformation development conditions. On the one hand, study and sort out the potential value of mine ecological restoration derivative products, introduce the preferred investors to carry out the overall planning and design of mine restoration and utilization through open competition, and implement the restoration project accordingly, so as to promote the integrated development of mine ecological restoration and real estate development, cultural tourism, elderly care, planting and breeding and other industries; On the other hand, we should support and guide the sustainable development of market-oriented projects. In view of the difficulties of market-oriented operation of mine ecological restoration projects and the long period of return on investment, we should constantly improve the preferential policies of land, finance, tax and insurance, and reasonably set up phased assessment indicators and fault-tolerant incentive mechanisms.
Improve the channels of socialized participation. The construction of ecological civilization is a cause for people to jointly build, govern and share. Mine ecological restoration cannot be separated from the joint participation of social organizations and the public. First, give play to the positive role of social organizations. Social organizations should play the role of a bridge between the government and enterprises, and promote the self-discipline of the industry by formulating and implementing the industrial code of conduct, carrying out green certification of mine ecological restoration, etc. At the same time, strengthen the management and guidance of social organizations, guide qualified environmental protection organizations to carry out activities such as mine ecological environmental public interest litigation according to law, and give full play to the role of environmental protection volunteers. Second, improve the mechanism of mass participation. First of all, we should fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the masses to participate. Respect the needs of the local people in the mining area, timely absorb the reasonable demands of the people by strengthening information disclosure, carrying out community consultation, organizing expert argumentation, holding hearings and other ways, and at the same time pay attention to promoting local employment, so as to better realize the ecological restoration of the mine and the coordinated development of the production and life of the residents in the mining area. Secondly, we should constantly improve the ability of the masses to participate. By distributing learning materials, conducting knowledge contests, and holding geological and mineral knowledge training courses, the awareness of mine residents on mine ecological protection and restoration is improved, the mine residents are encouraged to supervise mine ecological restoration, the mine residents are mobilized to participate in the dynamic monitoring of mine geological environment, and the public supervision and reporting feedback mechanism is constantly improved. Third, unblock the channels for third-party participation. In order to improve the efficiency of governance, local governments, mining enterprises, industry leading enterprises and scientific research institutes have jointly set up a platform for government-industry-university-research cooperation, and the way of "responsible person pays, professional governance" has been adopted to hand over mine ecological restoration issues to professional institutions for governance. At the same time, enterprises and scientific research institutes are encouraged to jointly build "research and development centers" and "practice bases" to speed up the cultivation of mine ecological restoration professionals, To provide talent guarantee for high-quality promotion of mine ecological restoration and comprehensive management.